• Schaie, KW and Willis, SL Handbook of the psychology of aging (Academic Press, 2010).

    Google Scholar

  • Kim, S. et al. Age-related hearing loss in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey. PLOS ONE 15e0243001 (2020).

    CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Crews, JE & Campbell, VA Visual impairment and hearing loss in community-dwelling older Americans: implications for health and functioning. A m. J. Public health 94823–829 (2004).

    PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Brennan, M., Su, Y.-P. & Horowitz, A. Longitudinal associations between dual sensory impairment and daily competence in older adults. J. Rehabilitation. Res. Dev. 43777 (2006).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Park, SJ, Ahn, S. & Park, KH Burden of visual impairment and chronic disease. JAMA Ophthalmol. 134, 778–784. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2016.1158 (2016).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Gordon-Salant, S. Hearing loss and aging: New research findings and clinical implications. J. Rehabilitation. Res. Dev. 429-24 (2005).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Chiang, P., Keeffe, J., Le Mesurier, R. & Taylor, H. Global burden of disease and visual impairment. Lancet 368365 (2006).

    CAS PubMed Google Scholar

  • Davis, AC & Hoffman, HJ Hearing loss: rising prevalence and impact. Bull. World health organ. 97646 (2019).

    PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Mathers, C., Smith, A. & Concha, M. Global burden of hearing loss in the year 2000. Global. Burd. Say. 181–30 (2000).

    Google Scholar

  • Han, J., Lee, H., Jung, J. & Park, E.-C. Effects of self-reported hearing or visual impairment on depressive symptoms: a population-based longitudinal study. Epidemiol. Science. psychiatric. 28343 (2019).

    CAS Google Scholar

  • Shakarchi, AF et al. Dual sensory impairment and perceived everyday discrimination in the United States. JAMA Ophthalmol. 138, 1227-1233. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.3982 (2020).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Schubert, CR et al. Sensory impairments and mortality risk in the elderly. J. Gerontol. Ser. A 72, 710–715. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glw036 (2016).

    Google Scholar

  • Ron, H. et al. Association of sensory impairments with cognitive decline and depression in older people in China. JAMA Network. Open 3, e2014186–e2014186. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.14186 (2020).

    PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Hwang, PH et al. Dual sensory impairment in the elderly and risk of dementia from the GEM study. Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s dementia. Evaluate Dis. Monit. 12e12054 (2020).

    Google Scholar

  • Livingston, G. et al. Dementia prevention, intervention and care. Lancet 3902673-2734 (2017).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Maharani, A. et al. Associations between self-reported sensory impairments and risk of cognitive decline and impairment in the Health and Retirement Study cohort. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 75, 1230-1242. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbz043 (2019).

    Google Scholar

  • Mitoku, K., Masaki, N., Ogata, Y. & Okamoto, K. Visual and hearing impairment, cognitive impairment, and mortality among long-term care recipients: a population-based cohort study. BMC Geriatr. 16112. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-016-0286-2 (2016).

    PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Pan, C.-W. et al. Cognitive dysfunction and health-related quality of life in older Chinese. Science. representing 51–8 (2015).

    Google Scholar

  • Raji, MA, Al Snih, S., Ostir, GV, Markides, KS & Ottenbacher, KJ Cognitive status and future risk of frailty in older Mexican Americans. J. Gerontol. Ser. A Biomed. Science. Med. Science. 651228-1234 (2010).

    Google Scholar

  • Bae, J.B. et al. Impact of mild cognitive impairment on mortality and causes of death in the elderly. J. Alzheimers Dis. 64, 607–616. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-171182 (2018).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Roberts, KL & Allen, HA Perception and cognition in the aging brain: a brief review of short- and long-term links between perceptual and cognitive decline. Front. Aging neuroscience. 839 (2016).

    PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Gates, GA, Beiser, A., Rees, TS, D’Agostino, RB & Wolf, PA Central auditory dysfunction may precede the onset of clinical dementia in people with probable Alzheimer’s disease. Jam. Geriatrics. Soc. 50482–488 (2002).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Uhlmann, RF, Larson, EB, Koepsell, TD, Rees, TS & Duckert, LG Visual impairment and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease. Intern J. Gen. Med. 6126-132 (1991).

    CAS PubMed Google Scholar

  • Gopinath, B. et al. Dual sensory impairment in older adults increases mortality risk: a population-based study. PLOS ONE 8e55054 (2013).

    ADS CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Lin, FR et al. Hearing loss and cognitive decline in the elderly. Jama Intern. Med. 173293-299 (2013).

    ADS PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Kang, Y., Na, DL, and Hahn, S. A validity study of the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) in patients with dementia. J. Korean Neurol. Assoc. 15300–308 (1997).

    Google Scholar

  • Folstein, MF, Folstein, SE & McHugh, PR “Mini-mental state”: A practical method to assess the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J. Psychiatrist. Res. 12189–198 (1975).

    CAS PubMed Google Scholar

  • Chou, K.-L. Combined effect of visual and hearing impairment on depression in older people: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. J. Affect. Disorder. 106, 191–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2007.05.028 (2008).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Twisk, JW Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis for Epidemiology: A Practical Guide (Cambridge University Press, 2013).

    Google Scholar

  • Midi, H. & Bagheri, A. In: Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on applied mathematics, simulation, modelling. 138–142 (World Academy and Society of Sciences and Engineering (WSEAS).).

  • Deal, JA et al. Hearing impairment and cognitive decline: a pilot study conducted as part of the atherosclerosis risk in neurocognitive study communities. A m. J. Epidemiol. 181680–690 (2015).

    PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Loughrey, DG, Kelly, ME, Kelley, GA, Brennan, S. & Lawlor, BA Association of Age-Related Hearing Loss with Cognitive Function, Cognitive Impairment, and Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis . JAMA Otolaryngol.-Neck and head surgery. 144, 115–126. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2017.2513 (2018).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Reuben, DB, Mui, S., Damesyn, M., Moore, AA, and Greendale, GA The prognostic value of sensory impairment in the elderly. Jam. Geriatrics. Soc. 47930–935 (1999).

    CAS PubMed Google Scholar

  • West, CG et al. Is visual function related to physical functional ability in the elderly?. Jam. Geriatrics. Soc. 50136–145 (2002).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Clemons, TE, Rankin, MW & McBee, WL Cognitive impairment in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study: AREDS report no. 16. Archives of Ophthalmology (Chicago, Illinois: 1960) 124537–543 (2006).

  • Marsiske, M., Klumb, P. & Baltes, MM Patterns of daily activities and sensory functioning in the elderly. Psychol. Aging 12444 (1997).

    CAS PubMed Google Scholar

  • Seen, TA et al. The bidirectional relationship between vision and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmology 128, 981–992. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.12.010 (2021).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Lin, MY et al. Visual impairment and combined visual and hearing impairment predict cognitive and functional decline in older women. Jam. Geriatrics. Soc. 521996–2002 (2004).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Fisher, D. et al. Hearing and visual impairment have an impact on mortality in the elderly: the AGES-Reykjavik study. Age Aging 4369–76 (2014).

    PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Kramer, SE, Kapteyn, TS, Kuik, DJ & Deeg, DJH The association of hearing loss and chronic disease with psychosocial health status in older adults. J. Aging Health 14, 122–137. https://doi.org/10.1177/089826430201400107 (2002).

    Google Scholar PubMed

  • Lindenberger, U. & Baltes, PB Sensory functioning and intelligence in old age: a strong link. Psychol. Aging 9, 339–355. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.9.3.339 (1994).

    CAS PubMed Google Scholar

  • Whitson, HE et al. American Geriatrics Society and National Institute on Aging Bench-to-Bedside Conference: Sensory Impairment and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults. Jam. Geriatrics. Soc. 66, 2052–2058. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15506 (2018).

    PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Long, C., Holden, R., Mulkerrin, E. & Sykes, D. Opportunistic screening of visual acuity in elderly patients attending outpatient clinics. Age Aging 20392–395 (1991).

    CAS PubMed Google Scholar

  • Kamil, RJ, Genther, DJ & Lin, FR Factors associated with the accuracy of subjective ratings of hearing loss. Ear Hear 36, 164–167. https://doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000000075 (2015).

    PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Bainbridge, KE & Wallhagen, MI Hearing loss in an aging US population: extent, impact, and management. Ann. Rev. Public health 35139-152 (2014).

    Google Scholar PubMed