• Chowdhury S, Rahman M, Moniruddin ABM. Anemia during pregnancy. Med today. 2014;26(1):49–52.

    Google Scholar article

  • Sabina S, Iftequar S, Zaheer Z, Khan MM, Khan S. An overview of anemia in pregnancy. J Innov Pharm Biol Sci. 2015;2(2):144–51.

    CAS Google Scholar

  • Liyew AM, Tesema GA, Alamneh TS, Worku MG, Teshale AB, Alem AZ, et al. Prevalence and determinants of anemia among pregnant women in East Africa; A multi-level analysis of recent Demographic and Health Surveys. PLoS One. 2021;16(4):e0250560. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250560.

    CAS PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Moshi FV, Millanzi WC, Mwampagatwa I. Factors associated with iron supplement intake during pregnancy among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: an analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data from 2015 to 2016 in Tanzania and the Malaria Indicator Survey. Frontiers in public health. 2021;9. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.604058

  • Peña‐Rosas JP, De‐Regil LM, Garcia‐Casal MN, Dowswell T. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database System Rev. 2015;(7). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004736.pub5

  • Gebremichael TG, Haftu H, Gereziher TA. Start time and compliance with iron-folate supplementation for pregnant women as part of prenatal follow-up. Adherence to patient preference from Northern Ethiopia. 2019;13:1057.

    Google Scholar article

  • Solomon Y, Sema A, Menberu T. Adherence and factors associated with iron and folic acid supplementation among pregnant women undergoing antenatal care at public hospitals in Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia. Eur J Midwives. 2021; 5 (August): 1–7. https://doi.org/10.18332/ejm/138595.

    Google Scholar article

  • Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) [Ethiopia] and ICF. 2021. Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey 2019: Final Report. Rockville, Maryland, USA EPHI ICF. 2019;

  • Melku M, Addis Z, Alem M, Enawgaw B. Prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia during pregnancy in gondar, northwestern ethiopia: an institutional cross-sectional study. Maggio A, editor. Anemia. 2014;2014:108593. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/108593.

    PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Imdad A, Bhutta ZA. Routine iron/folate supplementation during pregnancy: effect on maternal anemia and birth outcomes. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012;26(Suppl 1):168–77.

    Google Scholar article

  • Abu-Ouf NM, Jan MM. The impact of maternal iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia on child health. Saudi Med J. 2015 Feb;36(2):146–9. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25719576

  • Haider BA, Olofin I, Wang M, Spiegelman D, Ezzati M, Fawzi WW. Anaemia, prenatal iron use and risk of adverse pregnancy outcome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013;346:f3443.

    Google Scholar article

  • Loy SL, Lim LM, Chan SY, Tan PT, Chee YL, Quah PL, et al. Iron status and risk factors for iron deficiency among pregnant women in Singapore: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):397. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6736-y.

    PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Juul SE, Derman RJ, Auerbach M. Perinatal iron deficiency: implications for mothers and infants. Neonatology. 2019;115(3):269–74. https://doi.org/10.1159/000495978.

    CAS PubMed Google Scholar Article

  • Nisar BY, Dibley MJ. Early initiation and use of more iron and folic acid supplements during pregnancy prevent early neonatal deaths in Nepal and Pakistan. PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e112446. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112446.

    CAS PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • World Health Organization. WHO Global Anemia Estimates, 2021 Edition; Prevalence of anemia in women; Accessed May 10, 2022. Available at: https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/topics/anaemia_in_women_and_children

  • Teshale AB, Tesema GA, Worku MG, Yeshaw Y, Tessema ZT. Anemia and its associated factors among women of reproductive age in East Africa: a multilevel generalized linear mixed-effects model. PLoS One. 2020;15(9):e0238957. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238957.

    CAS PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • SiffirArgawu A, GobeboMekebo G, Bedane K, KanthMakarla R, Kefale B, Senbeto T, et al. Prevalence and determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia: a nationally representative cross-sectional study. J Pharm Res Int. 2021;33(59B):687–98.

    Google Scholar

  • Liyew AM, Teshale AB. Individual and community factors associated with anemia among breastfeeding mothers in Ethiopia using data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey, 2016; multi-level analysis. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1–11.

    Google Scholar article

  • DR of Ethiopia. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2016. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Rockville: CSA ICF Maryland, USA; 2016.

    Google Scholar

  • Desta M, Kassie B, Chanie H, Mulugeta H, Yirga T, Temesgen H, et al. Adherence to iron and folic acid supplementation and determinants among pregnant women in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Reprod Health. 2019;16(1):182. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-019-0848-9.

    CAS PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Gebremedhin S, Samuel A, Mamo G, Moges T, Assefa T. Coverage, compliance, and factors associated with the use of iron supplementation during pregnancy in eight rural districts of Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):607. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-607.

    PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Fite MB, Roba KT, Oljira L, Tura AK, Yadeta TA. Compliance with iron and folic acid supplementation (IFAS) and associated factors among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2021;16(4):e0249789. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0249789.

    CAS PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Birhanu TM, Birarra MK, Mekonnen FA. Compliance with iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy, northwestern Ethiopia. BMC Resolution Notes. 2018;11(1):345. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-018-3433-3.

    PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • AregaSadore A, AbebeGebretsadik L, AmanHussen M. Iron-folate supplement compliance and associated factors among antenatal care mothers in Misha district, southern Ethiopia: a community cross-sectional study. Factor-Litvak PR, editor. J Environ Public Health. 2015;2015:781973. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/781973.

    CAS Google Scholar Article

  • Getachew M, Abay M, Zelalem H, Gebremedhin T, Grum T, Bayray A. Magnitude and factors associated with adherence to iron-folic acid supplementation among pregnant women in Eritrean refugee camps, northern ‘Ethiopia. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):83. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-018-1716-2.

    PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Tamirat KS, Kebede FB, Gonete TZ, Tessema GA, Tessema ZT. Geographic variations and determinants of iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy in Ethiopia: analysis of the 2019 Mini Demographic and Health Survey. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022;22(1):1–11.

    Google Scholar article

  • Demuth IR, Martin A, Weissenborn A. Iron supplementation during pregnancy – a cross-sectional study undertaken in four German states. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):491. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-018-2130-5.

    CAS PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Abdullahi H, Gasim GI, Saeed A, Imam AM, Adam I. Prenatal use of iron and folic acid supplementation by pregnant women in Khartoum. Sudan BMC Res Notes. 2014;7(1):1–4.

    Google Scholar article

  • Tamirat KS, Tessema ZT, Kebede FB. Factors associated with perceived barriers to health care access among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia: analysis of secondary data from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020;20(1):691. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05485-y.

    PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Ogundipe O, Hoyo C, Østbye T, Oneko O, Manongi R, Lie RT, et al. Factors associated with antenatal folic acid and iron supplementation in 21,889 pregnant women in northern Tanzania: a hospital-based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):481. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-481.

    PubMed Article PubMed Central Google Scholar

  • Ibrhim MA, Demissie M, Medhanyie AA, Worku A, Berhane Y. Reasons for low levels of skilled attendance at childbirth in the Afar pastoral community, northeastern Ethiopia: a qualitative exploration. Pan Afr Med J. 2018;30:51. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30197742

  • Malhotra A, Malhotra PBA. The causes, consequences and solutions to the causes, consequences and solutions to the causes, consequences and solutions to forced child marriage Child marriage Child marriage in the developing world in the developing world. 2010.

    Google Scholar

  • Niang K, Faye A, Tine JAD, Diongue FB, Ndiaye B, Ndiaye MB, et al. Determinants of iron consumption in pregnant women in southern Senegal. Open J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;7(1):41–50.

    Google Scholar article

  • Cesar JA, de Carvalho Dumith S, Chrestani MAD, Mendoza-Sassi RA. Iron supplementation in pregnant women: results of a population-based survey. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2013;16:729–36.

    Google Scholar article